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পুরাণ প্রায় ১৫০০ বছর আগে রচিত। এই পুরাণে কলিযু‌গ কেমন হবে সে সম্পর্কে বেশ কিছু কথা বলা হয়েছে। হিন্দু শাস্ত্রমতে এখন কলিযুগই চলছে।

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প্রাচীন হিন্দু শাস্ত্রের যে ১০টি ভবিষ্যতবাণী

ভাগবৎ পুরাণ হিন্দুধর্মের অষ্টাদশ পুরাণের একটি। এই পুরাণে কলিযু‌গ কেমন হবে সে সম্পর্কে বেশ কিছু কথা বলা হয়েছে। হিন্দু শাস্ত্রমতে এখন কলিযুগই চলছে। বর্তমান সময়ের দিকে তাকালে কলিযুগ সম্পর্কে ভাগবতের এইসব ভবিষ্যৎবাণীর অনেকগুলিই সত্য বলে মনে হবে। সেরকমই কয়েকটি ভবিষ্যতবাণীর কথা রইল এখানে—

১. ধর্ম, সত্যবাদিতা, সহিষ্ণুতা, দয়া— এই সবই কলিযুগে মানুষের হৃদয় থেকে লোপ পাবে।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.১.)

২. কলিযুগে অর্থই মানুষের সামাজিক সম্মানের একমাত্র নির্ণায়ক হয়ে দাঁড়াবে।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.২.)

৩. যৌনক্ষমতার ভিত্তিতেই নারীর নারীত্ব এবং পুরুষের পুরুষত্ব নির্ধারিত হবে কলিযু‌গে।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.৩.)

৪. কি‌ছু বাহ্যিক আচারবিচারের ওপরেই মানুষের আধ্যাত্মিক অবস্থান নির্ভর করবে।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.৪.)

৫. দরিদ্র মানুষকে অপবিত্র মনে করা হবে, এবং শঠতা গুণ বলে বিবেচিত হবে।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.৫.)

৬. ধর্মচর্চার একমাত্র লক্ষ্য হয়ে দাঁড়াবে সামাজিক সুনাম অর্জন।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.৬.)

৭. দুর্নীতিপরায়ণ মানুষদের মধ্যে যে সবচেয়ে নিকৃষ্ট সে-ই অর্জন করবে রাজনৈতিক ক্ষমতা।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.৭.)

৮. খরার পীড়নে মানুষ সর্বস্বান্ত হবে।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.৮.)

৯. অতিরিক্ত গরম বা অতিরিক্ত ঠাণ্ডা এবং রোগ, ব্যাধি ও মানসিক অশান্তির তাড়নায় মানুষের জীবন অতিষ্ঠ হয়ে উঠবে।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.৯.)

১০. অসচ্চিরত্র মানুষ ধার্মিকের ভেক ধরে অর্থ উপার্জন করবে কলিযুগে।
(শ্রীমদভাগবৎ, ১২.২.৩৮.)

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Background:- In the beginning of 1891 (most probably February 1891) Vivekananda reached Alwar (currently a district in Rajasthan) where he met the king of the state Maharaja Mangal Singh Bahadur or Mangal Singh. The meeting between Swami Vivekananda and Mangal Singh and the conversation between them has historical significance and has been discussed and analysed by various scholars and biographers. In this post, we’ll talk about that meeting between Mangal Singh and Vivekananda.

Mangal Singh Bahadur, the king of Alwar was Westernised in his outlooks and had no respect for Indian and specially Hindu culture and traditions and used to feel proud for his attitude. He used to spend all his time in the company of Westerners, in hunting and other luxuries.

Incident:- Mangal Singh told vivekananda — “The idols you worship are nothing but piece of clay, stones or metals. I find this idol-worship “meaningless””.

The Wanderig monk

It was a direct attack on Hindu belief and Vivekananda had to give a strong reply to it. He started explaining to the king that Hindus worship God alone, using the idol as symbol. But his reply failed to convince Singh. Thereupon, Vivekananda saw a portrait hanging in the wall of the court. Vivekananda approached towards the painting, looked at it, and asked thedewan of the court to take it down from the wall. It was a painting of Singh’s deceased father. When the dewan took the picture down from the wall, Vivekananda asked him to spit on it. All were taken back, The dewan was horrified. The king was furious, “How dare you ask him to spit on my father?”, he cried, in a tone of demanding an explanation.

Vivekananda saw, the king was gripped. He smiled and quietly replied, “Your father, where is he?  It is a just a painting— a piece of paper, not your father.”

Vivekananda’s reply followed the logic of the king’s previous comment on Hindu idols. So, he was perplexed and speechless and did not know what to say.

Vivekananda once again started explaining to him, “Look Maharaja, this is a painting of you father, but when you look at it, it reminds you about him, here the painting is a “symbol”.
Similarly when a Hindu worshipper worships an idol, the idol reminds him about his beloved deity and he feels the presence of the deity in the idol. Here too it is a “symbol”. Maharaja, it is all about anubhuti (feelings and realization).

Now Mangal Singh quickly realized the real meaning of idol worship. He apologized to Vivekananda for his frivolity and rudeness and thanked him for giving him the lesson. He also requested Vivekananda to stay at his palace for few days.

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A song about a person who is looking for God, doing the best he can do in life, and yet not getting what he wishes for, as he desperately asks God where He is.

 

I’ve heard that you run the whole world,
Listen to my prayer too, my home calls me,
O Lord, where are you? O God, where are you?

I have heard that you show the path to the lost hearts,
I am lost too, my home calls me back..
O Lord, where are you? O God, where are you?

Should I worship you , or should I offer you a namaaz
Should I offer an ardaas
You are neither found in the temple, nor in the Church,
my tired eyes look for you…

all the customs that are there (to find you), I follow them all,
I bow my head to you, like these crores,
O Lord, where are you? O God, where are you?

You have many names, you have many faces,
there are many ways to find you..
I walked on all those paths, but couldn’t find you..
I didn’t understand what is it that you want..

I keep on trying, without thinking or understanding,
I follow your insistence with all due respect..
O Lord, where are you? O God, where are you?

Feluda Collection

Feature Films:- 

Doorbeen (2014) yet to be come:-

Royal Bengal Rohosso (2011):-

Gorosthaney Sabdhan (2010) :-

Tintorettor Jishu (2008):-

Kailashey Kelenkari (2007):-

Bombaiyer Bombete (2003):-

Baksho Rahashya (2001):-

Joi Baba Felunath (1979):-

Sonar Kella (1974):-

Television Films:-

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Click Here to Download Macro Enable Excel file (xlsx):-  https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2BTrAFca-xVRW1URmpOOWNMcjg/edit?usp=sharing

Click Here to Download the Excel(xlsx) file:- https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1zF-ekHzoUkZyF6LZ3fDuahUS4JRue4QG6mlgSAR7tkI/edit?usp=sharing

Click Here to Download the Excel(xls) file:-  https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1aMmvleUzK0wXoqTJGNeUi-j1gi8FDNO603zgJ0v5pmA/edit?usp=sharing

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What is your body worth on the black market

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As the dream of most parents I had acquired a degree in
Software Engineering and joined a company based in USA, the
land of braves and opportunity. When I arrived in the USA, it
was as if a dream had come true.

Here at last I was in the place where I want to be. I decided I
would be staying in this country for about Five years in which
time I would have earned enough money to settle down in India.

My father was a government employee and after his retirement,
the only asset he could acquire was a decent one bedroom flat.

I wanted to do some thing more than him. I started feeling
homesick and lonely as the time passed. I used to call home and
speak to my parents every week using cheap international phone
cards. Two years passed, two years of Burgers at McDonald’s and
pizzas and discos and 2 years watching the foreign exchange
rate getting happy whenever the Rupee value went down.

Finally I decided to get married. Told my parents that I have
only 10 days of holidays and everything must be done within
these 10 days. I got my ticket booked in the cheapest flight.
Was jubilant and was actually enjoying hopping for gifts for
all my friends back home. If I miss anyone then there will be
talks. After reaching home I spent home one week going through
all the photographs of girls and as the time was getting
shorter I was forced to select one candidate.

In-laws told me, to my surprise, that I would have to get
married in 2-3 days, as I will not get anymore holidays. After
the marriage, it was time to return to USA, after giving some
money to my parents and telling the neighbors to look after
them, we returned to USA.

My wife enjoyed this country for about two months and then she
started feeling lonely. The frequency of calling India
increased to twice in a week sometimes 3 times a week. Our
savings started diminishing.

After two more years we started to
have kids. Two lovely kids, a boy and a girl, were gifted to us
by the almighty. Every time I spoke to my parents, they asked
me to come to India so that they can see their grand-children.

Every year I decide to go to India… But part work part
monetary conditions prevented it. Years went by and visiting
India was a distant dream. Then suddenly one day I got a
message that my parents were seriously sick. I tried but I
couldn’t get any holidays and thus could not go to India … The
next message I got was my parents had passed away and as there
was no one to do the last rights the society members had done
whatever they could. I was depressed. My parents had passed
away without seeing their grand children.

After couple more years passed away, much to my children’s
dislike and my wife’s joy we returned to India to settle down.
I started to look for a suitable property, but to my dismay my
savings were short and the property prices had gone up during
all these years. I had to return to the USA…

My wife refused to come back with me and my children refused to
stay in India… My 2 children and I returned to USA after
promising my wife I would be back for good after two years.

Time passed by, my daughter decided to get married to an
American and my son was happy living in USA… I decided that
had enough and wound-up every thing and returned to India… I
had just enough money to buy a decent 02 bedroom flat in a
well-developed locality.

Now I am 60 years old and the only time I go out of the flat is
for the routine visit to the nearby temple. My faithful wife
has also left me and gone to the holy abode.

Sometimes

I wondered was it worth all this?

My father, even after staying in India,

Had a house to his name and I too have
the same nothing more.

I lost my parents and children for just ONE EXTRA BEDROOM.

Looking out from the window I see a lot of children dancing.
This damned cable TV has spoiled our new generation and these
children are losing their values and culture because of it. I
get occasional cards from my children asking I am alright. Well
at least they remember me.

Now perhaps after I die it will be the neighbors again who will
be performing my last rights, God Bless them.

But the question
still
remains ‘was all this worth it?’

I am still searching for an answer……………..!!!

START THINKING

IS IT JUST FOR ONE EXTRA BEDROOM???

LIFE IS BEYOND THIS …..DON’T JUST LEAVE YOUR LIFE ……..
START LIVING IT …….
LIVE IT AS YOU WANT IT TO BE ……

কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান জ্ঞানের একটি শাখা যেখানে তথ্য ও গণনার তাত্ত্বিক ভিত্তির গবেষণা করা হয় এবং কম্পিউটার নামক যন্ত্রে এসব গণনা সম্পাদনের ব্যবহারিক পদ্ধতির প্রয়োগ ও বাস্তবায়ন সম্পর্কে আলোচনা করা হয়।
কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞানকে প্রায়শই অ্যালগরিদমীয় পদ্ধতির একটি বিধিবদ্ধ অধ্যয়ন হিসেবে অভিহিত করা হয়, যে পদ্ধতির সাহায্যে তথ্য সৃষ্ট, বর্ণিত ও পরিবর্তিত হয়। কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞানের অনেক উপশাখা আছে। কিছু শাখা, যেমন কম্পিউটার গ্রাফিক্‌সে নির্দিষ্ট ফলাফল গণনাটাই মূল লক্ষ্য। আবার কিছু শাখা, যেমন গণনামূলক জটিলতা তত্ত্বে (Computational complexity theory) বিভিন্ন গণনা সমস্যার বৈশিষ্ট্যসমূহ বিশ্লেষণ করাই আলোচ্য। এছাড়াও কিছু শাখা আছে যেখানে বিভিন্ন ভৌত ব্যবস্থায় গণনা বাস্তবায়ন করার পদ্ধতি সমূহ আলোচিত হয়; যেমন প্রোগ্রামিং ভাষা তত্ত্বে একটি গণনামূলক পদ্ধতিকে কীভাবে কম্পিউটারের ভাষায় প্রকাশ করা যায় তা আলোচনা করা হয়। কম্পিউটার প্রোগ্রামাররা বিভিন্ন প্রোগ্রামিং ভাষা ব্যবহার করে নির্দিষ্ট গণনামূলক সমস্যা সমাধান করে থাকেন। অন্যদিকে মানুষ-কম্পিউটার মিথস্ক্রিয়া-র মূল লক্ষ্য হলো কম্পিউটার এবং গণনা-ফলাফলসমূহ ব্যবহারোপযোগী, কার্যকর এবং মানুষের কাছে সার্বিকভাবে সহজলভ্য করা।

*********many more********

Download the complete File: – Computer in Bengali

Valentine’s Day

Saint Valentine’s Day, commonly known as Valentine’s Day, or the Feast of Saint Valentine,
St. Valentine’s Day began as a liturgical celebration of one or more early Christian saints named Valentinus. The most popular martyrology associated with Saint Valentine was that he was imprisoned for performing weddings for soldiers who were forbidden to marry and for ministering to Christians, who were persecuted under the Roman Empire; during his imprisonment, he is said to have healed the daughter of his jailer Asterius. Legend states that before his execution he wrote “from your Valentine” as a farewell to her.

Today, Saint Valentine’s Day is an official feast day in the Anglican Communion, as well as in the Lutheran Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church also celebrates Saint Valentine’s Day, albeit on July 6th and July 30th, the former date in honor of the Roman presbyter Saint Valentine, and the latter date in honor of Hieromartyr Valentine, the Bishop of Interamna (modern Terni). The day was first associated with romantic love in the circle of Geoffrey Chaucer in the High Middle Ages, when the tradition of courtly love flourished. By the 15th century, it had evolved into an occasion in which lovers expressed their love for each other by presenting flowers, offering confectionery, and sending greeting cards (known as “valentines“). Valentine’s Day symbols that are used today include the heart-shaped outline, doves, and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the 19th century, handwritten valentines have given way to mass-produced greeting cards.

Historical facts

Shrine of St. Valentine in Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland

Numerous early Christian martyrs were named Valentine. The Valentines honored on February 14 are Valentine of Rome  and Valentine of Terni . Valentine of Rome was a priest in Rome who was martyred about AD 269 and was buried on the Via Flaminia. The flower crowned skull of St Valentine is exhibited in the Basilica of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome. Other relics are found in the Basilica of Santa Prassede, also in Rome, as well as at Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland.

Valentine of Terni became bishop of Interamna (modern Terni) about AD 197 and is said to have been martyred during the persecution under Emperor Aurelian. He is also buried on the Via Flaminia, but in a different location than Valentine of Rome. His relics are at the Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni (Basilica di San Valentino).

The Catholic Encyclopedia also speaks of a third saint named Valentine who was mentioned in early martyrologies under date of February 14. He was martyred in Africa with a number of companions, but nothing more is known about him. Saint Valentine’s head was preserved in the abbey of New Minster, Winchester and venerated.

February 14 is celebrated as St Valentine’s Day in various Christian denominations; it has, for example, the rank of ‘commemoration’ in the calendar of saints in the Anglican Communion. In addition, the feast day of Saint Valentine is also given in the calendar of saints of the Lutheran Church. However, in the 1969 revision of the Roman Catholic Calendar of Saints, the feast day of Saint Valentine on February 14 was removed from the General Roman Calendar and relegated to particular (local or even national) calendars for the following reason: “Though the memorial of Saint Valentine is ancient, it is left to particular calendars, since, apart from his name, nothing is known of Saint Valentine except that he was buried on the Via Flaminia on February 14.” The feast day is still celebrated in Balzan (Malta) where relics of the saint are claimed to be found, and also throughout the world by Traditionalist Catholics who follow the older, pre-Second Vatican Council calendar. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, St. Valentine’s Day is celebrated on July 6th, in which Saint Valentine, the Roman presbyter, is honoured; furthermore, the Eastern Orthodox Church obsesrves the feast of Hieromartyr Valentine, Bishop of Interamna, on July 30th.

Similar days celebrating love

East Asia

Tree at Valentine’s Day with hearts

Due to a concentrated marketing effort, Valentine’s Day is celebrated in some East Asian countries with Chinese and South Koreans spending the most money on Valentine’s gifts.

In China, the common situation is the man gives chocolate, flowers or both to the woman that he loves. In Chinese, Valentine’s Day is called (simplified Chinese: 情人节; traditional Chinese: 情人節; pinyin: qíng rén jié). The so-called “Chinese Valentine’s Day” is the Qixi Festival, celebrated on the seventh day of the seventh month of the lunar calendar. It commemorates a day on which a legendary cowherder and weaving maid are allowed to be together. Valentine’s Day on February 14 is not celebrated because it is often too close to Chinese New Year, which usually falls on a February or January. In Chinese culture, there is an older observance related to lovers, called “The Night of Sevens” (Chinese: 七夕; pinyin: Qi Xi). According to the legend, the Cowherd star and the Weaver Maid star are normally separated by the Milky Way (silvery river) but are allowed to meet by crossing it on the 7th day of the 7th month of the Chinese calendar.

In South Korea, similar to Japan, women give chocolate to men on February 14, and men give non-chocolate candy to women on March 14 (White Day). On April 14 (Black Day), those who did not receive anything on 14 February or March go to a Korean restaurant to eat black noodles (자장면 jajangmyeon) and “mourn” their single life. Koreans also celebrate Pepero Day on November 11, when young couples give each other Pepero cookies. The date ’11/11′ is intended to resemble the long shape of the cookie. The 14th of every month marks a love-related day in Korea, although most of them are obscure. From January to December: Candle Day, Valentine’s Day, White Day, Black Day, Rose Day, Kiss Day, Silver Day, Green Day, Music Day, Wine Day, Movie Day, and Hug Day. Korean women give a much higher amount of chocolate than Japanese women.

In Taiwan the situation is the reverse of Japan’s. Men give gifts to women on Valentine’s Day, and women return them on White Day.

Japan

In Japan, Morozoff Ltd. introduced the holiday for the first time in 1936, when it ran an advertisement aimed at foreigners. Later in 1953 it began promoting the giving of heart-shaped chocolates; other Japanese confectionery companies followed suit thereafter. In 1958 the Isetan department store ran a “Valentine sale”. Further campaigns during the 1960s popularized the custom.

The custom that only women give chocolates to men appears to have originated from the translation error of a chocolate-company executive during the initial campaigns. In particular, office ladies give chocolate to their co-workers. Unlike western countries, gifts such as greeting cards, candies, flowers, or dinner dates are uncommon, and most of the activity about the gifts is about giving the right amount of chocolate to each person. Japanese chocolate companies make half their annual sales during this time of the year.

Many women feel obliged to give chocolates to all male co-workers, except when the day falls on a Sunday, a holiday. This is known as giri-choko (義理チョコ), from giri (“obligation”) and choko, (“chocolate”), with unpopular co-workers receiving only “ultra-obligatory” chō-giri choko cheap chocolate. This contrasts with honmei-choko (本命チョコ, favorite chocolate), chocolate given to a loved one. Friends, especially girls, may exchange chocolate referred to as tomo-choko (友チョコ); from tomo meaning “friend”.

In the 1980s the Japanese National Confectionery Industry Association launched a successful campaign to make March 14 a “reply day”, where men are expected to return the favour to those who gave them chocolates on Valentine’s Day, calling it White Day for the color of the chocolates being offered. A previous failed attempt to popularize this celebration had been done by a marshmallow manufacturer who wanted men to return marshmallows to women.

Men are expected to return gifts that are at least two or three times more valuable than the gifts received in Valentine’s Day. Not returning the gift is perceived as the man placing himself in a position of superiority, even if excuses are given. Returning a present of equal value is considered as a way to say that you are cutting the relationship. Originally only chocolate was given, but now the gifts of jewelry, accessories, clothing and lingerie are usual. According to the official website of White Day, the color white was chosen because it’s the color of purity, evoking “pure, sweet teen love”, and because it’s also the color of sugar. The initial name was “Ai ni Kotaeru White Day” (Answer Love on White Day).

In Japan, the romantic “date night” associated to Valentine’s Day is celebrated on Christmas Eve.

In a 2006 survey of people between 10 and 49 years of age in Japan, Oricon Style found the 1986 Sayuri Kokushō single, Valentine Kiss, to be the most popular Valentine’s Day song, even though it sold only 317,000 copies. The singles it beat in the ranking were number one selling Love Love Love from Dreams Come True (2,488,630 copies) and Valentine’s Radio from Yumi Matsutoya (1,606,780 copies). The final song in the top five was My Funny Valentine by Miles Davis.

In Japan, a slightly different version of 七夕 called Tanabata has been celebrated for centuries, on July 7 (Gregorian calendar). It has been considered by Westerners as similar to St. Valentine’s Day, but it’s not related to it, and its origins are completely different.

Europe

A Chocolate gift box

Cup cake with hearts

Valentine’s Day is called Ημέρα του Αγίου Βαλεντίνου in Cyprus and Greece, which translates into “St Valentines day”. In the Orthodox church there is another Saint[which?] to protect people who are in love, but for Greeks Valentine’s Day is more popular.

In Denmark and Norway, although February 14 is known as Valentinsdag, it is not celebrated to a large extent, but is largely imported from American culture, and some people take time to eat a romantic dinner with their partner, to send a card to a secret love or give a red rose to their loved one. The cut-flower industry in particular is still working on promoting the holiday. In Sweden it is called Alla hjärtans dag (“All Hearts’ Day”) and was launched in the 1960s by the flower industry’s commercial interests, and due to the influence of American culture. It is not an official holiday, but its celebration is recognized and sales of cosmetics and flowers for this holiday are only exceeded by those for Mother’s Day.

In Finland Valentine’s Day is called Ystävänpäivä which translates into “Friend’s Day”. As the name indicates, this day is more about remembering all your friends, not only your loved ones. In Estonia Valentine’s Day is called Sõbrapäev, which has the same meaning.

In Romania, the traditional holiday for lovers is Dragobete, which is celebrated on February 24. It is named after a character from Romanian folklore who was supposed to be the son of Baba Dochia. Part of his name is the word drag (“dear”), which can also be found in the word dragoste (“love”). In recent years, Romania has also started celebrating Valentine’s Day, despite already having Dragobete as a traditional holiday. This has drawn backlash from several groups, institutions and nationalist organizations like Noua Dreaptǎ, who condemn Valentine’s Day for being superficial, commercialist and imported Western kitsch.

In Slovenia, St Valentine or Zdravko was one of the saints of spring, the saint of good health and the patron of beekeepers and pilgrims. A proverb says that “St Valentine brings the keys of roots”. Plants and flowers start to grow on this day. It has been celebrated as the day when the first work in the vineyards and in the fields commences. It is also said that birds propose to each other or marry on that day. Another proverb says “Valentin – prvi spomladin” (“Valentine — the first spring saint”), as in some places (especially White Carniola), Saint Valentine marks the beginning of spring. Valentine’s Day has only recently been celebrated as the day of love. The day of love was traditionally March 12, the Saint Gregory’s day, or February 22, Saint Vincent’s Day. The patron of love was Saint Anthony, whose day has been celebrated on 13 June.

While sending cards, flowers, chocolates and other gifts is traditional in the UK, Valentine’s Day has various regional customs. In Norfolk, a character called ‘Jack’ Valentine knocks on the rear door of houses leaving sweets and presents for children. Although he was leaving treats, many children were scared of this mystical person. In Wales, many people celebrate Dydd Santes Dwynwen (St Dwynwen’s Day) on January 25 instead of (or as well as) Valentine’s Day. The day commemorates St Dwynwen, the patron saint of Welsh lovers. In France, a traditionally Catholic country, Valentine’s Day is known simply as “Saint Valentin”, and is celebrated in much the same way as other western countries. In Spain Valentine’s Day is known as “San Valentín” and is celebrated the same way as in the UK, although in Catalonia it is largely superseded by similar festivities of rose and/or book giving on La Diada de Sant Jordi (Saint George’s Day). In Portugal it is more commonly referred to as “Dia dos Namorados” (Lover’s Day / Day of those that are in love with each other).

For the Jewish tradition, see Israel on other section.

India

In India, in the antiquity, there was a tradition of adoring Kamadeva, the lord of love; exemplificated by the erotic carvings in the Khajuraho Group of Monuments and by the writing of the Kamasutra treaty of lovemaking. This tradition was lost around the Middle Ages, when Kamadeva was no longer celebrated, and public displays of sexual affections became frowned upon. The festival of Rasa (Rasa Utsav), a celebration of Radha and Krishna’s legendary love affair; once popular in the Eastern part of the subcontinent (Bengal and Odisha) is also noteworthy in this context; though at present times this is observed by a small number of people. In the state of West Bengal, Saraswati Puja, a festival observed in early spring where Saraswati, the goddess of learning is worshiped; has often been seen as a Bengali version of Valentine’s day; especially among the urban middle class youth. Around 1992, Valentine’s Day celebrations started catching up in India, with special TV and radio programs, and even love letter competitions. The economic liberalization also helped the Valentine card industry.

In modern times, Hindu and Islamic traditionalists consider the holiday to be cultural contamination from the West, result of the globalization in India. Shiv Sena and the Sangh Parivar have asked their followers to shun the holiday and the “public admission of love” because of them being “alien to Indian culture”. Although these protests are organized by political elites, the protesters themselves are middle-class Hindu men who fear that the globalization will destroy the traditions in their society: arranged marriages, Hindu joint families, full-time mothers, etc.

Despite these obstacles, Valentine’s Day is becoming increasingly popular in India.

However, Valentine’s Day has been strongly criticized from a postcolonial perspective by intellectuals from the Indian left. The holiday is regarded as a front for Western imperialism, neocolonialism, and the exploitation of working classes through commercialism by multinational corporations. Studies have shown that Valentine’s Day promotes and exacerbates income inequality in India, and aids in the creation of a pseudo-westernized middle class. As a result, the working classes and rural poor become more disconnected socially, politically, and geographically from the hegemonic capitalist power structure. They also criticize mainstream media attacks on Indians opposed to Valentine’s Day as a form of demonization that is designed and derived to further the Valentine’s Day agenda. Right wing Hindu nationalists are also hostile. In February 2012 Subash Chouhan of the Bajrang Dal warned couples that “They cannot kiss or hug in public places. Our activists will beat them up”. He said “We are not against love, but we criticize vulgar exhibition of love at public places”.

Guru Asaram Bapu says the modern holiday corrupts young people and breaks the nation’s backbone. He says that young people look at each other with lust before they are married. He says that the dissipation of their sexual energy weakens their eyesight, intellect and their future. He calls for celebrating instead a “Love Day”, and sublimated those feelings into honouring our parents. Bapu states that “Those who celebrate Valentine’s Day’ are only degrading Saint Valentine, as by sending the valentine’s card they try to develop a licentious relationship with their beloveds even before marriage. Had this been agreeable to Valentine, he would not have arranged for the marriages.”

Latin America

The Heart of the Milky Way, for Valentine’s Day

In some Latin American countries Valentine’s Day is known as “Día del Amor y la Amistad” (Day of Love and Friendship). For example Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico, as well as others. It is also common to see people perform “acts of appreciation” for their friends.

In Guatemala it is known as the “Día del Cariño” (Affection Day).

In Brazil, the Dia dos Namorados (lit. “Lovers’ Day”, or “Boyfriends’/Girlfriends’ Day”) is celebrated on June 12, probably because it is the day before Saint Anthony’s day, known there as the marriage saint, when traditionally many single women perform popular rituals, called simpatias, in order to find a good husband or boyfriend. Couples exchange gifts, chocolates, cards and flower bouquets. The February 14’s Valentine’s Day is not celebrated at all because it usually falls too little before or after the Brazilian Carnival — that can fall anywhere from early February to early March and lasts almost a week. Because of the absence of Valentine’s Day and the celebrations of the Carnivals, Brazil is a popular tourist spot during February for Western singles to get away from the holiday.

In Venezuela, in 2009, President Hugo Chávez said in a meeting to his supporters for the upcoming referendum vote on February 15, that “since on the 14th, there will be no time of doing nothing, nothing or next to nothing … maybe a little kiss or something very superficial”, he recommended people to celebrate a week of love after the referendum vote.

In most of Latin America the Día del amor y la amistad and the Amigo secreto (“Secret friend”) are quite popular and usually celebrated together on the 14 of February (one exception is Colombia, where it is celebrated every third Saturday of September). The latter consists of randomly assigning to each participant a recipient who is to be given an anonymous gift (similar to the Christmas tradition of Secret Santa).

Middle East

In Iran, the Sepandarmazgan, or Esfandegan, is a festival where people express love towards their mothers and wives, and also a celebration of earth in ancient Persian culture. It has nothing in common with the Saint Valentine celebration, except for a superficial similarity in giving affection and gifts to loved ones, and its origins and motivations are completely unrelated. It has been progressively forgotten in favor of the Western celebration of Valentine’s Day. The Association of Iran’s Cultural and Natural Phenomena has been trying since 2006 to make Sepandarmazgan a national holiday on 17 February, in order to replace the Western holiday.

In Israel, the Jewish tradition of Tu B’Av has been revived and transformed into the Jewish equivalent of Valentine’s Day. It’s celebrated in 15th day of the month of Av (usually late August). In ancient times girls would wear white dresses and dance in the vineyards, where the boys would be waiting for them (Mishna Taanith end of Chapter 4). Today, this is celebrated as a second holiday of love by secular people (besides Saint Valentine’s Day), and shares many of the customs associated with Saint Valentine’s Day in western societies. In modern Israeli culture this is a popular day to pronounce love, propose marriage and give gifts like cards or flowers.

Southeast Asia

In the Philippines, Valentine’s Day is called “Araw ng mga Puso” or “Hearts Day”. It is usually marked by a steep increase in the prices of flowers.

According to findings, Singaporeans are among the biggest spenders on Valentine’s day, with 60% of Singaporeans indicating that they would spend between $100 and $500 in the season.

Conflict with Islamic countries and political parties

Iran

In the first part of the 21st century, the celebration of Valentine’s Day in Iran has been harshly criticized by Islamic Teachers who see the celebrations as opposed to Islamic culture. In 2011, the Iranian printing works owners’ union issued a directive banning the printing and distribution of any goods promoting the holiday, including cards, gifts and teddy bears. “Printing and producing any goods related to this day including posters, boxes and cards emblazoned with hearts or half-hearts, red roses and any activities promoting this day are banned… Outlets that violate this will be legally dealt with”, the union warned.

Malaysia

Islamic officials in Malaysia warned Muslims against celebrating Valentine’s Day, linking it with vice activities. Deputy Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin said the celebration of romantic love was “not suitable” for Muslims. Wan Mohamad Sheikh Abdul Aziz, head of the Malaysian Islamic Development Department (Jakim), which oversees the country’s Islamic policies said a fatwa (ruling) issued by the country’s top clerics in 2005 noted the day ‘is associated with elements of Christianity,’ and ‘we just cannot get involved with other religion’s worshipping rituals.’ Jakim officials planned to carry out a nationwide campaign called “Awas Jerat Valentine’s Day” (“Mind the Valentine’s Day Trap”), aimed at preventing Muslims from celebrating the day on 14 February 2011. Activities include conducting raids in hotels to stop young couples from having unlawful sex and distributing leaflets to Muslim university students warning them against the day.

On Valentine’s Day 2011, Malaysian religious authorities arrested more than 100 Muslim couples concerning the celebration ban. Some of them would be charged in the Shariah Court for defying the department’s ban against the celebration of Valentine’s Day.

Pakistan

The concept of Valentine’s Day was introduced in Pakistan during the late 1990s with special TV and radio programs. The Jamaat-e-Islami political party has called for the banning of Valentine’s Day celebration. Despite this, the celebration is becoming popular among urban youth and the florists expect to sell great amount of flowers, especially red roses. Same is the case with card publishers. However, public at large still consider Valentine’s Day as opposed to Pakistani culture and Islamic teachings.

Saudi Arabia

In Saudi Arabia, in 2002 and 2011, religious police banned the sale of all Valentine’s Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items, as the day is considered a Christian holiday. In 2008 this ban created a black market of roses and wrapping paper.

21st dec ,12

21st dec, 2012

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